This is the worlds leading source of financial content on the web, ranging from market news to retirement strategies, investing education to insights from advisors.
Forex Forever!

This Is How Much You Can Contribute to Your IRA

Author: Andrew Harris

One of the surest ways to bolster your nest egg is to take advantage of special tax breaks offered by the IRS. That basic precept explains the popularity of individual retirement accounts, or IRAs, which have long been one of the cornerstones of asset planning in the U.S.

Like employer-sponsored 401(k)s, IRAs can dramatically reduce the amount of income you have to fork over to the federal government. Investors generally contribute pre-tax dollars and the balance grows on a tax-deferred basis until retirement. Withdrawals after the age of 59½ are then subject to ordinary income tax rates.

As the name implies, these independent accounts are completely separate from your place of work. There are pros and cons to that autonomy. It's easy to open an account at your brokerage firm, a mutual fund company or bank, for instance. (For details, see Take These Simple Steps to Open an IRA.) But unlike 401(k)s, there are no matching funds from the employer to shore up your savings. That's why it's a good idea to put money into a 401(k) and maximize the subsidy before you add to other accounts.

Once you've reached the limit on the company's 401(k) match, IRAs are often a great place to go next. First and foremost, you're not confined to the limited menu of investment options that your company selects. In addition to mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs), many IRAs allow you to pick individual stocks and bonds as well.

Be aware, though, that there are limits on how much you can contribute. It's also worth bearing in mind that the two most common varieties of this savings vehicle – traditional IRAs and Roth IRAs – have slightly different rules.

Traditional IRA Limits and Restrictions

For 2015, the standard contribution limit for both traditional and Roth IRAs is $5,500. If you're 50 years of age or older, the IRS provides a catch up feature that allows you to contribute an extra $1,000 each year. (If you're merely rolling over another retirement plan into an IRA, these caps don't apply.)

That may not sound like a lot of money, but it's enough to make a big dent in your account performance over a long period of time. As an example, let's take a 30-year-old who contributes the full $5,500 every year until she retires. Assuming a 7% annual return, her account will have a balance of $813,524 by age 65. After taxes – assuming a 15% tax rate in retirement – it's still worth $691,495.

Let's say that her effective tax rate right now, when she's earning steady income, is 25%. Had she put the same portion of each paycheck in a taxable savings account, it would only be worth $413,051. Why? Because the IRA's tax deduction gives her greater purchasing power. Suppose, after paying taxes, that our 30-year-old could only afford to put $4,125 into a standard savings account. If she put the money into an IRA instead, it would reduce her tax bill, allowing her to put in an additional 25%, or $1,375. And over time, that drastically increases the size of her nest egg.

Figure 1. The tax advantages of an IRA can have a dramatic impact on savings over the course of several decades.


While anyone can contribute up to $5,500 (or $6,500 for individuals age 50 and older) to a traditional IRA, not everyone can deduct that full amount on their tax return. If you have a retirement plan at work, you're subject to certain income-based restrictions.

If you're single and make more than $61,000 and less than $71,000 a year, for example, you're only allowed a partial deduction on IRA contributions. Single filers who make $71,000 or more can't deduct any of theirs.

Figure 2. Whether or not you're eligible for a tax deduction on traditional IRA contributions depends on your income.

: Internal Revenue Service

Here are what count as an employer retirement plan:

  • 401(k) accounts
  • Profit-sharing programs
  • Stock bonus programs
  • IRA plans (including SEP or SIMPLE IRAs)
  • Pensions

If either you or your spouse has one or more of these plans through your place of work, you will be subject to the income-based restrictions. See Top 10 Mistakes to Avoid on Your IRA for additional cautions.

Different Rules for Roth

When setting up an IRA, most investors have two choices: the traditional version of these savings accounts and the Roth variety. In some respects, the tax treatment of the Roth is just the opposite of its older brother. Instead of getting a tax deduction on contributions up front, account holders kick in post-tax money that they can withdraw tax-free in retirement.

The Roth version of the IRA has the same contribution limits as a standard IRA – $5,500 annually with a $1,000 catch-up allowance for those age 50 and older. But unlike traditional accounts, the government places restrictions on who can contribute.

To determine your eligibility, the IRS uses a slightly clumsy-sounding metric called modified adjusted gross income (MAGI). Basically, it's your total income minus certain expenses.

Most taxpayers qualify for the full contribution allowance, although certain higher-earning individuals are only permitted a reduced amount. Single filers with MAGI of more than $131,000 per year and joint filers who bring in more than $193,000 are disqualified from Roth IRA contributions altogether.

Figure 3. Some taxpayers may only qualify for a reduced contribution to Roth IRA accounts, or none at all, depending on their income level.

: Internal Revenue Service

There's another area in which Roth IRAs differ from traditional IRAs. With a conventional account, you can't make contributions past the age of 70½ and you have to start taking required minimum distributions from your account at that age. Neither are true with the Roth version, which has no age restriction for contributions and no RMDs. See Roth vs. Traditional: Which IRA Is Right for You? for more details.

The Bottom Line

If you've already maximized your company's match on 401(k) contributions, an Individual Retirement Account is probably the next place you'll want to park your retirement money. If you meet the criteria to fund a Roth account or deduct 100% of contributions to a traditional IRA, you're getting the biggest tax break of all.

last five articles

#1756 Main Universal Design Improvements Every Home Needs

Author: Daniel Taylor

Whether you're planning to spend your golden years in your home or put it up for sale, you may benefit from making some universal design improvements. Universal design can ensure the comfort of you and your family for years to come, and it can also appeal to buyers with special needs or a desire ... see more

#343 The Best and Worst States for Retirees in 2016

Author: Jacob Smith

For retirees, quality of life depends on a range of factors including the cost of goods and services, taxes, health care access and quality, crime statistics, and even the weather. These components combine to create the best and worst places for retirees to live, according to Bankrate, which rank... see more

#1749 Review: My Best Buy Credit Card

Author: Matthew Williams

Do you always have the newest gadget? Do you live in fear that somebody may see you with an outdated phone or the now outdated HDTV? If that's you, maybe you spend a lot of time at your neighborhood Best Buy.Along with MyBestBuy, the store's customer loyalty program, Best Buy has a rewards... see more

#1405 Using Your 529 Savings to Study Abroad

Author: Daniel Jackson

Are you a university student or the parent of a student who considers a semester abroad in London or Australia to be the crème de la crème of the college experience?As of last year, the average cost to study abroad for a semester ran to an eyebrow-raising $31,270. No wonder, then, that f... see more

#952 Green Cards: How to Get One

Author: Christopher Smith

Issued by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), the coveted green card (yes, it is actually green) allows you to live and work in the United States on a permanent basis. You must, however, have grounds for eligibility. The most common green-card qualifications come via family, jo... see more